Themes are the fundamental and often universal ideas explored in a literary work. The Corruption of the Innocent The governess only rarely indicates that she is afraid the ghosts will physically harm or kill the children.
He was the son of Henry James, Sr. James alternated between America and Europe for the first 20 years of his life, after which he settled in England, becoming a British subject inone year before his death.
He is primarily known for the series of novels in which he portrays the encounter of Americans with Europe and Europeans.
James contributed significantly to literary criticism, particularly in his insistence that writers be allowed the greatest possible freedom in presenting their view of the world.
James claimed that a text must first and foremost be realistic and contain a representation of life that is recognisable to its readers. His theatrical work is thought to have profoundly influenced his later novels and tales. Life James was born in New York City into a wealthy family.
His father, Henry James Sr. In his youth James traveled back and forth between Europe and America.
At the age of 19 he briefly attended Harvard Law School, but preferred reading literature to studying law. James published his first short story, A Tragedy of Error, at age 21, and devoted himself to literature.
In —69 and —72 he was a contributor to The Nation and Atlantic Monthly. The Bostonians is set in the era of the rising feminist movement.
What Maisie Knew depicts a preadolescent girl who must choose between her parents and a motherly old governess. In The Wings of the Dove an inheritance destroys the love of a young couple.
James considered The Ambassadors his most "perfect" work of art. James's most famous novella is The Turn of the Screw, a ghost story in which the question of childhood corruption obsesses a governess. Although James is best known for his novels, his essays are now attracting a more general audience.
James regularly rejected suggestions that he marry, and after settling in London proclaimed himself "a bachelor. Dupee, in several well-regarded volumes on the James family, originated the theory that he had been in love with his cousin Mary "Minnie" Temple, but that a neurotic fear of sex kept him from admitting such affections.
James's letters to expatriate American sculptor Hendrik Christian Andersen have attracted particular attention. James met the year-old Andersen in Rome inwhen James was 56, and wrote letters to Andersen that are intensely emotional: In a letter from May 6,to his brother William, James referred to himself as "always your hopelessly celibate even though sexagenarian Henry".
How accurate that description might have been is the subject of contention among James's biographers, but the letters to Andersen were occasionally quasi-erotic: Meanwhile I can only try to live without you.
What shall I say? Therefore I think that—if you want it made clear to the meanest intelligence—I love you more than I love Others. His works frequently juxtapose characters from the Old World Europeembodying a feudal civilization that is beautiful, often corrupt, and alluring, and from the New World United Stateswhere people are often brash, open, and assertive and embody the virtues—freedom and a more highly evolved moral character—of the new American society.
James explores this clash of personalities and cultures, in stories of personal relationships in which power is exercised well or badly. Critics have jokingly described three phases in the development of James's prose: In his apprentice years, culminating with the masterwork The Portrait of a Lady, his style was simple and direct by the standards of Victorian magazine writing and he experimented widely with forms and methods, generally narrating from a conventionally omniscient point of view.
Plots generally concern romance, except for the three big novels of social commentary that conclude this period.
In the second period, as noted above, he abandoned the serialised novel and from to about , he wrote short stories and plays.
Finally, in his third and last period he returned to the long, serialised novel. More important for his work overall may have been his position as an expatriate, and in other ways an outsider, living in Europe.
While he came from middle-class and provincial belongings seen from the perspective of European polite society he worked very hard to gain access to all levels of society, and the settings of his fiction range from working class to aristocratic, and often describe the efforts of middle-class Americans to make their way in European capitals.
He confessed he got some of his best story ideas from gossip at the dinner table or at country house weekends. He worked for a living, however, and lacked the experiences of select schools, university, and army service, the common bonds of masculine society.
He was furthermore a man whose tastes and interests were, according to the prevailing standards of Victorian era Anglo-American culture, rather feminine, and who was shadowed by the cloud of prejudice that then and later accompanied suspicions of his homosexuality.
Major Novels Although any selection of James's novels as "major" must inevitably depend to some extent on personal preference, the following books have achieved prominence among his works in the views of many critics. James believed a novel must be organic. Parts of the novel need to go together and the relationship must fit the form.
If a reader enjoys a work of art or piece of writing, then they must be able to explain why. The very fact that every reader has different tastes, lends to the belief that artists should have artistic freedom to write in any way they choose to talk about subject matter that could possibly interest everyone.
The first period of James's fiction, usually considered to have culminated in The Portrait of a Lady, concentrated on the contrast between Europe and America.- Turn of the Screw by Henry James Was James' novel an allegory for corruption of the innocent, or a straight forward ghost story. The question of whether the ‘Bly Ghosts' existed or not in Henry James' ‘Turn of the Screw' has been a debate of literary criticism that .
Love Between the Classes: An Analysis of Social Status Violation in The Turn of the Screw A Marxist reading of The Turn of the Screw by Henry James brings to light how social status differences and above all how the violation of .
Some want to rediscover the works of female writers while some are interested in understanding the women's point of view in the eyes of a male. For example, The Turn of the Screw.
There are three main strains of feminist . A summary of Themes in Henry James's The Turn of the Screw. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of The Turn of the Screw and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.
This excessive reticence on the part of the characters could reflect James’s own reticence (which was marked), or it could be interpreted as a satiric reflection on Victorian reticence about sex. More straightforwardly, it could be a technique for engaging the imagination to produce a more terrifying effect.
The Turn of the Screw Henry James.
American novelist, short story writer, essayist, critic, biographer, autobiographer, and playwright. The following entry presents criticism on James's novella.