References and Further Reading 1. What it is Human nature is naturally good. At least it leans decidedly toward an awareness of the good, and a preference for it, over evil and injustice.
Universal ethical principles Principled conscience The understanding gained in each stage is retained in later stages, but may be regarded by those in later stages as simplistic, lacking in sufficient attention to detail. Pre-conventional[ edit ] The pre-conventional level of moral reasoning is especially common in children, although adults can also exhibit this level of reasoning.
Reasoners at this level judge the morality of an action by its direct consequences. The pre-conventional level consists of the first and second stages of moral development and is solely concerned with the self in an egocentric manner.
For example, an action is perceived as morally wrong because the perpetrator is punished. The child would apply obedience and punishment driven morality by refusing to skip school because he would get punished.
An example of self-interest driven is when a child is asked by his parents to do a chore. The child is motivated by self-interest to do chores. Conventional[ edit ] The conventional level of moral reasoning is typical of adolescents and adults.
The conventional level consists of the third and fourth stages of moral development. They try to be a "good boy" or "good girl" to live up to these expectations,  having learned that being regarded as good benefits the self.
The intentions of actors play a more significant role in reasoning at this stage; one may feel more forgiving if one thinks that "they mean well". Moral reasoning in stage four is thus beyond the need for individual approval exhibited in stage three.
A central ideal or ideals often prescribe what is right and wrong. If one person violates a law, perhaps everyone would—thus there is an obligation and a duty to uphold laws and rules.
When someone does violate a law, it is morally wrong; culpability is thus a significant factor in this stage as it separates the bad domains from the good ones. Most active members of society remain at stage four, where morality is still predominantly dictated by an outside force.
Post-conventional moralists live by their own ethical principles—principles that typically include such basic human rights as life, liberty, and justice.
People who exhibit post-conventional morality view rules as useful but changeable mechanisms—ideally rules can maintain the general social order and protect human rights. Rules are not absolute dictates that must be obeyed without question. Because post-conventional individuals elevate their own moral evaluation of a situation over social conventions, their behavior, especially at stage six, can be confused with that of those at the pre-conventional level.
Such perspectives should be mutually respected as unique to each person or community. Laws are regarded as social contracts rather than rigid edicts. Those that do not promote the general welfare should be changed when necessary to meet "the greatest good for the greatest number of people".
Democratic government is ostensibly based on stage five reasoning. In Stage six universal ethical principles drivenmoral reasoning is based on abstract reasoning using universal ethical principles. Laws are valid only insofar as they are grounded in justice, and a commitment to justice carries with it an obligation to disobey unjust laws.
Legal rights are unnecessary, as social contracts are not essential for deontic moral action.
Decisions are not reached hypothetically in a conditional way but rather categorically in an absolute way, as in the philosophy of Immanuel Kant. In this way action is never a means but always an end in itself; the individual acts because it is right, and not because it avoids punishment, is in their best interest, expected, legal, or previously agreed upon.
Although Kohlberg insisted that stage six exists, he found it difficult to identify individuals who consistently operated at that level. Further stages[ edit ] In his empirical studies of individuals throughout their life, Kohlberg observed that some had apparently undergone moral stage regression.
This could be resolved either by allowing for moral regression or by extending the theory. Kohlberg chose the latter, postulating the existence of sub-stages in which the emerging stage has not yet been fully integrated into the personality.
This stage is often mistaken for the moral relativism of stage two, as the individual views those interests of society that conflict with their own as being relatively and morally wrong.
Arguing that his theory measures moral reasoning and not particular moral conclusions, Kohlberg insists that the form and structure of moral arguments is independent of the content of those arguments, a position he calls " formalism ".
Justice itself relies heavily upon the notion of sound reasoning based on principles.KOHLBERG’S LEVELS OF MORAL REASONING Lawrence Kohlberg () theory of moral development describes six stages of moral reasoning at three different levels.
Pre-conventional Level The first two stages are described a pre-conventional levels of moral reasoning. Kolhberg's stages of moral development examine moral dilemmas that teach individuals the difference between right and wrong.
Read more about kohlberg's stages of moral development in the Boundless open textbook. Kohlberg’s Six Stages of Moral Development should have a seventh.
Kohlberg has focused on moral development and has proposed a stage theory of moral thinking which goes well beyond Piaget's initial formulations. Kohlberg, who was born in , grew up in Bronxville, New York, and attended the Andover Academy in Massachusetts, a private high school for bright and usually wealthy students.
Theories of Human Development. Generativity involves finding your life’s work and contributing to the development of others through activities such as volunteering, mentoring, and raising children. Kohlberg’s stages of moral development: Kohlberg identified three levels of moral reasoning: pre-conventional, conventional, and post.
moral development in Piaget's theory, occurring from approximately 4 to 7 years of age. Justice and rules are conceived of as unchangeable properties of the world, removed from the control of people. Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning involves stages, which are organized into three levels.
In the given scenario one could argue that in the context of Kohlberg's theory the ten year old child is operating at the Pre-conventional level, Egoist/Self-interest orientation stage (Level 1, Stage 2).