Attitudes Toward Work Changing attitudes toward work help explain the changing demographic profile of the American work force. With a college degree increasingly seen as a necessity for the good life, many young people ages 16 to 24 report they are staying out of the labor force to concentrate full time on their education. At the other end of the work life cycle, older adults are healthier, living longer 17 and more inclined than any time in recent decades to work past the traditional retirement age of A majority of those who do so say they keep working mainly for the intangible rather than the economic rewards, according to the Pew Research Center survey.
Fundamentals[ edit ] Attitudes and their connection with industrial mental health are related to Abraham Maslow 's theory of motivation. His findings have had a considerable theoretical, as well as a practical, influence on attitudes toward administration.
Rather, individuals look for the gratification of higher-level psychological needs having to do with achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, and the nature of the work itself.
This appears to parallel Maslow's theory of a need hierarchy. However, Herzberg added a new dimension to this theory by proposing a two-factor model of motivation, based on the notion that the presence of one set of job characteristics or incentives leads to worker satisfaction at work, while another and separate set of job characteristics leads to dissatisfaction at work.
Thus, satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not on a continuum with one increasing as the other diminishes, but are independent phenomena. This theory suggests that to improve job attitudes and productivityadministrators must recognize and attend to both sets of characteristics and not assume that an increase in satisfaction leads to decrease in dissatisfaction.
The two-factor theory developed from data collected by Herzberg from interviews with engineers and accountants in the Pittsburgh area, chosen because of their professions' growing importance in the business world.
Regarding the collection process: Each respondent gave as many "sequences of events" as he could that met certain criteria— including a marked change in feeling, a beginning, and an end, and contained some substantive description other than feelings and interpretations The proposed hypothesis appears verified.
The factors on the right that led to satisfaction achievement, intrinsic interest in the work, responsibility, and advancement are mostly unipolar; that is, they contribute very little to job dissatisfaction.
Conversely, the dis-satisfiers company policy and administrative practices, supervision, interpersonal relationships, working conditions, and salary contribute very little to job satisfaction.
However, the absence of such gratifying job characteristics does not appear to lead to unhappiness and dissatisfaction. Instead, dissatisfaction results from unfavorable assessments of such job-related factors as company policies, supervision, technical problems, salary, interpersonal relations on the job, and working conditions.
Thus, if management wishes to increase satisfaction on the job, it should be concerned with the nature of the work itself — the opportunities it presents for gaining status, assuming responsibility, and for achieving self-realization.
If, on the other hand, management wishes to reduce dissatisfaction, then it must focus on the job environment — policies, procedures, supervision, and working conditions.
Two-factor theory distinguishes between: The term "hygiene" is used in the sense that these are maintenance factors. According to Herzberg, hygiene factors are what causes dissatisfaction among employees in the workplace. In order to remove dissatisfaction in a work environment, these hygiene factors must be eliminated.
There are several ways that this can be done but some of the most important ways to decrease dissatisfaction would be to pay reasonable wages, ensure employees job security, and to create a positive culture in the workplace.
Herzberg considered the following hygiene factors from highest to lowest importance: The other half would be to increase satisfaction in the workplace. This can be done by improving on motivating factors. Herzberg also further classified our actions and how and why we do them, for example, if you perform a work related action because you have to then that is classed as "movement", but if you perform a work related action because you want to then that is classed as "motivation".
Herzberg thought it was important to eliminate job dissatisfaction before going onto creating conditions for job satisfaction because it would work against each other.
The ideal situation where employees are highly motivated and have few complaints. Employees have few complaints but are not highly motivated. The job is viewed as a paycheck. Employees are motivated but have a lot of complaints.
A situation where the job is exciting and challenging but salaries and work conditions are not up to par. This is the worst situation where employees are not motivated and have many complaints. Unlike Maslowwho offered little data to support his ideas, Herzberg and others have presented considerable empirical evidence to confirm the motivation-hygiene theory, although their work has been criticized on methodological grounds.
Workarounds[ edit ] Herzberg's theory concentrates on the importance of internal job factors as motivating forces for employees. He designed it to increase job enrichment for employees.Abstract.
This article identifies three major gaps between HR practice and the scientific research in the area of employee attitudes in general and the most focal employee attitude in particular—job satisfaction: (1) the causes of employee attitudes, (2) the results of positive or negative job satisfaction, and (3) how to measure and influence employee attitudes.
Attitude & Job Satisfaction 1. ATTITUDES and JOB SATISFACTION Prepared by: r-bridal.comnan (25) r-bridal.comshankar (18) Balashakthivel. “Motivation is the act of stimulating someone or oneself to get desired course of action, to push right button to get desired reactions.” The following are the features of motivation.
Chapter 3: Attitudes and Job Satisfaction. 1. Contrast the three components of an attitude 2. Compare and contrast the major job attitudes 4. Define job satisfaction and show how we can measure it 5. Summarize the main causes of job satisfaction 6. Identify four employee responses to dissatisfaction.
STUDY. PLAY. Summary: Managers.
The full results of our literature survey into how to predict job satisfaction. Job satisfaction employee satisfaction is a measure of workers' contentedness with their job, whether or not they like the job or individual aspects or facets of jobs, such as nature of work or supervision.