What's in the box: The minigun itself neatly encased in a Styrofoam shell to protect it during shipping A small tool kit that has a small ratchet with various sockets and drill bits The flash hider have not figured out how the heck to mount this thing on the actual gun yet Instruction manual A small piece of air tubing with a quick disconnect What you need to operate the gun: A 12 volt mini style battery. The one I bought from Evike will spin the barrel however it appears to not have enough ummpphhh as when I was test firing it would appear to spin the barrels at a slow rate.
Introduction[ edit ] The protein family of annexins has continued to grow since their association with intracellular membranes was first reported in Several proteins consist of annexin with other domains like gelsolin.
The convex side of this disk has type 2 calcium-binding sites. They are important for allowing interaction with the phospholipids at the plasma membrane.
In some annexins it can become phosphorylated and can cause affinity changes for calcium in the core region or alter cytoplasmic protein interaction. Also, annexins have been shown to be involved in trafficking and organization of vesiclesexocytosisendocytosis and also calcium ion channel formation.
Structure[ edit ] Several subfamilies of annexins have been identified based on structural and functional differences. However, all annexins share a common organizational theme that involves two distinct regions, an annexin core and an amino N -terminus.
The amino acid annexin core has four annexin repeats, each composed of 5 alpha-helices.
The four annexin repeats produce a curved protein and allow functional differences based on the structure of the curve. For example, A-V exposes a tryptophan residue, upon calcium binding, which can interact with the hydrocarbon chains of the lipid bilayer.
In all annexins the N-terminus is thought to sit inside the concave side of the annexin core and folds separately from the rest of the protein.
A short N-terminus, as seen in A-III, can consist of 16 or less amino acids and travels along the concave protein core interacting via hydrogen bonds. Membrane[ edit ] Annexins are characterized by their calcium dependent ability to bind to negatively charged phospholipids i. Annexin one is a substrate of the EGF epidermal growth factor tyrosine kinase which becomes phosphorylated on its N terminus when the receptor is internalized.
Annexin VI is thought to be involved in clathrin coated budding events, while annexin II participates in both cholesteryl ester internalization and the biogenesis of multi-vesicular endosomes. Annexins assemble as trimers,  where this trimer formation is facilitated by calcium influx and efficient membrane binding.
This trimer assembly is often stabilized by other membrane-bound annexin cores in the vicinity. Eventually, enough annexin trimers will assemble and bind the cell membrane. This will induce the formation of membrane-bound annexin networks. These networks can induce the indentation and vesicle budding during an exocytosis event.
Annexin A-V can form 2-dimensional networks when bound to the phosphatidylserine unit of the membrane. Alternatively, annexins A-I and A-II bind phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine units in the cell membrane, and are often found forming monolayered clusters that lack a definite shape.
These medical implications have been uncovered with in vivo studies where the path of a fertilized egg is tracked to the uterus. After fertilization, the egg must enter a canal for which the opening is up to five times smaller than the diameter of the egg.
Once the fertilized egg has passed through the opening, annexins are believed to promote membrane folding in an accordion-like fashion to return the stretched membrane back to its original form. Though this was discovered in the nematode annexin NEX-1, it is believed that a similar mechanism takes place in humans and other mammals.Improve your math knowledge with free questions in "Add and subtract matrices" and thousands of other math skills.
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Use dissection arguments, Cavalieri's principle, and informal limit arguments.
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