Civil war study guide

Causes of the War What did differences in the lifestyles of the North and the South affect their views on slavery? A In the North, business became more industrialized, making the use of slave labor obsolete. Factory owners could hire wage laborers more cheaply than they could maintain slave gangs. Things were much different in the South.

Civil war study guide

The English Civil War One of the most important and violent periods in British history, the English Civil War was a series of closely related conflicts during the 17th Century, which saw the monarchy deposed and abolished for the first time in history.

One of the Civil war study guide important and violent periods in British history, the English Civil War was a series of closely related conflicts during the 17th Century, which saw the monarchy deposed and abolished for the first time in history.

What Caused the War? There were numerous different causes for the eruption of tensions in the English Civil War, ranging from long-gestating institutional reasons as well as the more immediate actions of the King Charles I. James I, having acceded the throne following the death of Elizabeth I, oversaw the unification of the English and Scottish Kingdoms, having held the latter position initially.

He led a lavish and indulgent lifestyle, which created tensions between himself in the Parliament, whilst leaving its financial resources depleted.

Furthermore, his belief in the divine right of the King left him ignorant to the concerns of Parliament. However, he had a notably even-tempered and peaceful manner, which prevented tensions from erupting during his reign.

The financial strains placed on parliament by the monarchy only escalated during the reign of Charles I, who shared a similar patronising disdain towards parliament to his father.

Charles I led a similar lifestyle of excess, and is known today for his patronage of the arts, which placed a substantial financial cost on Parliament.

Regularly running out of funds to keep up with his lifestyle, Charles I attempted to forcibly tax his subjects in order to generate sufficient capital. His personal traits exasperated the long-gestating political tensions between monarchy and parliament.

A significant, inter-related issue, which helped trigger the Civil War was religious discord. Specifically, conflict between Protestantism and Roman Catholicism had been raging throughout the continent for over a century.

There was a deep-seated animosity towards Roman Catholics within England in light of recent conflicts such as the Thirty-Years War, the Gunpowder Plot and most significantly the Spanish Armada. This diverse combination of factors had undermined any faith in Charles I and to a greater extent, the monarchy itself.

Tensions reached a boiling point in as civil warfare finally broke out. Charles I One of the most notorious monarchs of all time, Charles I ruled for a tumultuous 25 years and is famously known as the only British King to be successfully deposed and executed.

Throughout his reign, he quarrelled incessantly with the Parliament over a number of issues. His unwavering belief in the divine right of Kings saw him come into repeated conflict with Parliament, while his inefficient policies enacted to support his lavish lifestyle caused significant resentment and opposition towards him develop.

A tyrannical figure ignorant to the changing landscape around him, Charles I remains one of the most significant monarchs in British history.

Oliver Cromwell Battle of Naseby, 14 June He quickly rose up the ranks and was instrumental to the defeat of the royalists. Following the execution of Charles I, Cromwell was the head of the Commonwealth of England under the title of Protector.

His subsequent reign was incredibly polarising, with some dubbing him a liberator while most critical of his genocidal tendencies. These two forces came into conflict over a number of reasons, but the main cause was the division over how the country was to be run.

The Cavaliers supported the absolute monarchy proposed by Charles I whilst the Roundheads supported a reformation and a more balanced distribution of power between the Crown and parliament.

The Royal Capital With tensions rising and battle lines drawn, Charles I and his supporters found themselves ousted from their home of London and forced into establishing a new base elsewhere. The Main Battles There were a number of critical battles during the English Civil War, however, three in particular defined the narrative of the conflict.

Civil war study guide

Taking place in Southern Warwickshire, the battle marked a major escalation in tensions following the breakdown of relations between the King and Parliament earlier in the year. In the intervening months, both the Cavaliers and the Roundheads spent time amassing military support.

Civil war study guide

Charles I, known for his belligerence, decided to force a direct confrontation with his foes and marched towards London. The conflict was known for the poor organisation and experience of troops on both sides, and both forces underestimated the distance between one another. This battle is seen as key in elongating the conflict, preventing both the Royalists and the Parliamentarians from gaining an early advantage.

Despite Prince Rupert of the Rhine, a brilliant military figure leading the Royalist forces, they found themselves outmanoeuvred. Despite securing early gains, the Royalists grew complacent and left themselves vulnerable to a surprise attack lead by none other than Oliver Cromwell.

Battle of Naseby — 14 June Considered to be the most important and decisive battle of the Civil War, the Battle of Naseby effectively sealed Parliamentary victory.

Taking place in a village in Northampton, the battle began as the Parliamentarian New Model Army, led by Sir Thomas Fairfax stormed Oxford, the base of the Royalists, while King Charles engaged them directly instead of retreating. This decision proved to be a significant and costly miscalculation.

The tactical nous of Cromwell and Fairfax once again outmanoeuvred the Royalists, inflicting devastating losses and a fatal loss of morale upon them. The Battle had essentially left the Royalists depleted of men and resources and tipped the scales of the conflict decisively in favour of the Parliamentarians.

What Caused the War?

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The Civil War Study Guide Answers