New worlds were discovered, the population was escalating due to the slave trade and booming economy, and the industrial production advanced from man-made to machine-made.
Morocco —58 With the marriage of the heirs apparent to their respective thrones Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile created a personal union that most scholars view as the foundation of the Spanish monarchy. Their dynastic alliance was important for a number of reasons, ruling jointly over a large aggregation of territories although not in a unitary fashion.
Ferdinand of Aragon was particularly concerned with expansion in France and Italy, as well as conquests in North Africa. The Kingdom of Portugal had an advantage over the rest of Iberian, having earlier retaken territory from the Muslims. Portugal completed Christian reconquest in and settling the kingdom's boundaries.
Portugal then began to seek further overseas expansion, first to the port of Ceuta and then by colonizing the Atlantic islands of Madeira and the Azores ; it also began voyages down the west coast of Africa in the fifteenth century. Following the voyage of Christopher Columbus in and first major settlement in the New World inPortugal and Castile divided the world by the Treaty of Tordesillaswhich gave Portugal Africa and Asia and the Western Hemisphere to Spain.
Columbus unexpectedly encountered the western hemisphere, populated by peoples he named "Indians. Managing the expanding empire became an administrative issue. It had conquered Melilla inand further expansionism policy in North Africa was developed during the regency of Ferdinand the Catholic in Castile, stimulated by the Cardinal Cisneros.
Several towns and outposts in the North African coast were conquered and occupied by Castile: Tripoli was taken on 24—25 July, the feast of St. Jamesprotector of Spain; the claim was made that 10, Muslims were killed and many captured. The Spanish conquest of Oran was won with much bloodshed: The Zeiyanid sultans of Tlemcen quickly submitted to Spanish protectorate, and the two powers soon became allies.
Cardinal Cisneros converted two mosques to Catholic use, and restored and expanded the town's fortifications. Oran, like other principal Algerian ports, was forced to accept a presidio military outpost ; it became a major naval base, a garrison city armed with traffic-commanding cannons and harquebuses.
For about years, Oran's inhabitants were virtually held captive in their fortress walls, ravaged by famine and plague; soldiers, too, were irregularly fed and paid. The Catholic Monarchs had developed a strategy of marriages for their children in order to isolate their long-time enemy: As King of AragonFerdinand had been involved in the struggle against France and Venice for control of Italy; these conflicts became the center of Ferdinand's foreign policy as king.
In these battles, which established the supremacy of the Spanish Tercios in European battlefields, the forces of the kings of Spain acquired a reputation for invincibility that would last until the midth century.
After the death of Queen Isabella inand her exclusion of Ferdinand from a further role in Castile, Ferdinand married Germaine de Foix incementing an alliance with France.
Had that couple had a surviving heir, likely Aragon would have been split from Castile, which was inherited by Charles, Ferdinand and Isabella's grandson.
Ferdinand's first deployment of Spanish forces came in the War of the League of Cambrai against Venicewhere the Spanish soldiers distinguished themselves on the field alongside their French allies at the Battle of Agnadello Only a year later, Ferdinand became part of the Holy League against France, seeing a chance at taking both Milan — to which he held a dynastic claim — and Navarre.
This war was less of a success than the war against Venice, and inFrance agreed to a truce that left Milan in its control and recognized Spanish control of Upper Navarrewhich had effectively been a Spanish protectorate following a series of treaties in,and Conquest of the Canary Islands The conquest of the Canary Islands Portugal obtained several Papal bulls that acknowledged Portuguese control over the discovered territories, but Castile also obtained from the Pope the safeguard of its rights to the Canary Islands with the bulls Romani Pontifex dated 6 November and Dominatur Dominus dated 30 April The conquest was completed with the campaigns of the armies of the Crown of Castile between andwhen the islands of Gran Canaria —La Palma —and Tenerife — were subjugated.
Chronicler Pulgar wrote that the fame of the treasures of Guinea "spread around the ports of Andalusia in such way that everybody tried to go there". The War of the Castilian Succession —79 provided the Catholic Monarchs with the opportunity not only to attack the main source of the Portuguese power, but also to take possession of this lucrative commerce.
The Crown officially organized this trade with Guinea: Isabella at the center, Columbus on the left, a cross on her right.TheChange Over Time Essay The social and Economic transformations that occurred in the Atlantic world as a result of new contacts among Western Europe, Africa, and the Americas from to increased and decreased populations of the Atlantic world due to the slave trade and flourishing economyre were several social changes that occurred in.
Socio-Economic Changes in the Atlantic World from ; Socio-Economic Changes in the Atlantic World from growth felt by Africa, Western Europe, and the Americas, the socio. Change and Continuity Over Time Essay for January Analyze the social and economic transformations that occurred in the Atlantic world as a result of new contacts among Western Europe, Africa, and the Americas from The Spanish “Reconquest” of the Iberian peninsula ends in January with the conquest of Granada, the last city held by the Moors.
From to , there were many changes in the Atlantic world that were both social and economic. This occurred because of the new contact among Western Europe, the Americas, and Africa.
A Time-line for the History of Mathematics (Many of the early dates are approximates) This work is under constant revision, so come back later. Please report any errors to me at [email protected]