By Juliana Menasce HorowitzRuth Igielnik and Kim Parker A majority of Americans would like to see more women in leadership positions in business and politics, but many are skeptical that there will ever be gender parity in these positions, even as more women move into management roles and run for office.
The experience of women, and the issues of gender and sexuality, are vitally important to our Gender and women convinced women of the story of computing, and hence our contemporary world, for many reasons. Perhaps most straightforwardly, women have been ubiquitous throughout the history of computing as makers and users of it.
Sometimes, this invisibility is a deliberate erasure in which the contributions of women to computing work of various sorts was devalued culturally and economically, and thus went without recognition or documentation. How Britain Discarded Women Technologists and Lost its Edge in Computing, it was the very fact that women did particular kinds of work in computing that this work was devalued, and unrecorded.
Our full discussion of her book may be viewed below. In the transition from a war footing to peacetime, many of the pioneering women in computing were pushed out through overt discrimination, and, as Hicks insightfully documents, a system of employment and compensation based on a presumed or enforced heterosexuality, in which women were assumed to be destined for marriage and, with it, motherhood.
This presumed heteronormativity of future husbands and children grounded a system in which women were employed in computing in ways that were explicitly temporary, without paths for sustained career development.
Indeed, Hicks details the ways in which the Civil Service contorted itself to prevent any woman from supervising a man, even when women had depth of knowledge and experience that completely eclipsed men coming into computing work.
Managers valued these forms of discrimination in Gender and women convinced women computing, particularly in state-governed workplaces.
If men, who demanded career paths and higher wages, had done the work, the direct costs of computerization would have been tremendously larger. These costs and losses, Hicks argues, led to chronic shortages of labor and expertise in computing that Britain, facing grave economic and social challenges in the first decades of electronic computing, could ill-afford.
As an historian and curator at the Computer History Museum, my interview with Professor Hicks, and my reading of her Programmed Inequality, led me to see a way in which the system of presumed heterosexuality that she discusses for excluding women from certain kinds of participation in computing might also be a factor in the underrepresentation of women in archival collections connected to computer history.
How do personal and professional papers find their way into archives? In some cases, it is through proactive planning and work with the individual themselves. The archive, or its surrounding institution, may have an existing relationship with the individual, with both convinced in the historical value of the collection and the suitability of the archive for long-term preservation.
However, my intuition and experience lead me to the opinion that this is not the predominant case. Until recently, the possibility to have a spouse and children was nearly entirely limited to heterosexuals, or to those who at least performed as such.
What this means is that contributors to the history of computing who did not fit the mold of traditional heteronormativity were more at risk for having their personal and professional papers lost to the archive, lacking the spouses or children to whom the task of preservation so frequently falls.
One of the most personally frustrating examples of this archival absence from heteronormative noncompliance is the case of Ida Rhodes, born Hadassah Itzkowitz, who lived from to Rhodes was a remarkable character.
Inshe joined the electronic computing effort of the National Bureau of Standards in Washington, DC, where she would go on to become a critical software figure in many early applications of computing by the US federal government, including the Census and Social Security Administration.
During her long career at the bureau before her retirement, Rhodes also was an early pioneer of the use of electronic computing for automated translation, in particular English-Russian translation. Moreover, Rhodes was a renowned correspondent on technical and other topics with a wide international circle, including Albert Einstein.
Much of what we know about her and her career is due to the painstaking efforts of historian David Allen Grier. Ida Rhodes was a mathematician at US National Bureau of Standards, an expert on electronic data processing, and a pioneer in the development of modern computers.
Divorced, and without children, she did not have the additional support that so many rely on for the archival preservation of their personal and professional papers. Perhaps there is a lesson here for archivists and curators to create better systems of outreach and collection for those who do not have others to assist in their affairs.
Reprinted with permission of the IEEE. Scan courtesy of Hagley Museum and Library. Marie Hicks backstage to chat firsts and favorites. Who are you following on social media? I think this is especially true for folks who come from backgrounds of a less privileged nature, where one failure can be enough to derail your education or your career.
What was your first computer? An Apple IIe with no peripherals other than a green and black monitor and a floppy drive. I tried so hard to play games on it, but it was pretty boring. I hated it and envied my friends who had Commodores or even TRSs. Battle for the City, and Unbought and Unbossed: The Shirley Chisholm Story.
I hope is the year when grassroots resistance against online monopolies really gains traction.Oct 27, · A remarkable gender gap has opened up in Americans’ views of their own finances and the broader national economy. Men feel better about the economy than they have in over a decade. Women are far.
Women’s experience does not resemble that of men who adopt the ‘gender identity’ of being female or being women in any respect. The idea of ‘gender identity’ disappears biology and all the experiences that those with female biology have of being reared in a caste system based on sex.". The Women and Gender Constituency is pleased to share its key recommendations for ensuring gender considerations in the implementation guidelines of the Paris Agreement.
DOWNLOAD Recalling gender equality has been enshrined in the Paris Agreement in the following ways: Paris Preamble “Acknowledging that climate change is a common . Talking about gender and sex differences might positively influence communication among men and women.
Follow me on Twitter for health and psychology related posts: Source: Istock royalty free. While the world has achieved progress towards gender equality and women’s empowerment under the Millennium Development Goals (including equal access to primary education between girls and boys.
This post will be the first of a two-part series on gender inequality in the United States.
Gender inequality is defined as the disparity in status, power and prestige between people who identify as women and men. Today I will look at how gender inequality still exists in the United States, despite our frequent unwillingness to acknowledge it.