Thesis Statement Ethics is the base of every decision but universal ethical codes explain fundamental rules that are universal and cannot be changed at any cost. Somehow it does not fall into critical situations and complex circumstances. This is the irrefutable debate that how universal ethics exists or not and also explains its conflicts that usually occur in daily lives. Introduction Ethics have been following since the birth of humanity but have number of dimensions in it.
The status of the believer in Islam remained in practice a juridical question, not a matter for theologians or philosophers to decide. Except in regard to the fundamental questions of the existence of God, Islamic revelationand future reward and punishment, the juridical conditions for declaring someone an unbeliever or beyond the pale of Islam were so demanding as to make it almost impossible to make a valid declaration of this sort about a professing Muslim.
In the course of events in Islamic history, representatives of certain theological movements, who happened to be jurists and who succeeded in converting rulers to their cause, made those rulers declare in favour of their movements and even encouraged them to persecute their opponents.
Thus there arose in some localities and periods a semblance of an official, or orthodoxdoctrine. Together with these other disciplinesIslamic theology is concerned with ascertaining the facts and context of the Islamic revelation and with understanding its meaning and implications as to what Muslims should believe and do after the revelation had ceased and the Islamic community had to chart its own way.
It remained true to its original traditional and religious point of view, confined itself within the limits of the Islamic revelation, and assumed that these limits as it understood them were identical with the limits of truth.
The Hellenistic legacy The pre-Islamic and non-Islamic legacy with which early Islamic theology came into contact included almost all the religious thought that had survived and was being defended or disputed in EgyptSyriaIranand India.
At first, access to this legacy was primarily through conversations and disputations with such men, rather than through full and accurate translations of sacred texts or theological and philosophic writings, although some translations from Pahlavi a Middle Persian dialectSyriacand Greek must also have been available.
The characteristic approach of early Islamic theology to non-Muslim literature was through oral disputations, the starting points of which were the statements presented or defended orally by the opponents. Oral disputation continued to be used in theology for centuries, and most theological writings reproduce or imitate that form.
From such oral and written disputations, writers on religions and sects collected much of their information about non-Muslim sects. Much of Hellenistic post-3rd-century-bce Greek culturalIranian, and Indian religious thought was thus encountered in an informal and indirect manner.
From the 9th century onward, theologians had access to an increasingly larger body of translated texts, but by then they had taken most of their basic positions. By this time Islamic theology had coined a vast number of technical terms, and theologians e.
The 9th-century translators availed themselves of these advances to meet the needs of patrons. Theology and sectarianism Despite the notion of a unified and consolidated community, as taught by the Prophet Muhammad, serious differences arose within the Muslim community immediately after his death.
According to the Sunni s—the traditionalist faction whose followers now constitute the majority branch of Islam—the Prophet had designated no successor. Thus, the Muslims at Medina decided to elect a chief. His preference was general knowledge.
In other words, good works were an integral part of faith and not extraneous to it. They incessantly resorted to rebellion and, as a result, were virtually wiped out during the first two centuries of Islam.
It forced the religious leadership of the community to formulate a bulwark against religious intolerance and fanaticism. Are human acts the result of a free human choiceor are they predetermined by God? This question brought with it a whole series of questions about the nature of God and of human nature.
As a consequence of translations of Greek philosophical and scientific works into Arabic during the 8th and 9th centuries and the controversies of Muslims with dualists e. They claimed that human reasonindependent of revelation, was capable of discovering what is good and what is evil, although revelation corroborated the findings of reason.
Human beings would, therefore, be under moral obligation to do the right even if there were no prophets and no divine revelation.Rushworth Kidder states that "standard definitions of ethics have typically Anscombe proposed that either those who do not give ethical credence to notions of divine law take up virtue ethics, which does not necessitate universal laws as is a form of applied ethics or professional ethics that examines ethical principles and.
Universal ethics is a class of those principles that can be applied to all class, creed of humans, whether they belongs to any religion or secular and free from any particular faith.
The collection of universal ethics is not based on particular religion not it talks about liturgical or metaphysical concepts of any kinds. Universal Ethical Principles HONESTY BE HONEST IN ALL COMMUNICATIONS AND ACTIONS Be truthful, sincere, forthright, straightforward, frank, and candid; do .
Even if there is agreement on some moral issues within human societies, that would not in itself establish the existence of universal ethical . COURSE TITLE START DATE-END DATE; IT Essentials: PC Hardware & Software (A+) Nov 26, -Nov 30, By Captain Mark Vandroff, USN.
I recently read Dale R. Wilson’s well-written piece “Character is Crumbling in Our Leadership.” I was left, however, wondering about a definition of ethical behavior.