Obstructive sleep apnea Pulmonary diseases e. Aetna considers the gastric emptying breath test GEBT experimental and investigational for gastroparesis and for all other indications because of insufficent evidence of its effectiveness.
CT or high-resolution CT HRCT are more sensitive than plain radiography at detecting pulmonary fibrosis as well as any underlying pleural changes. Once apparent, the radiographic findings in asbestosis may slowly progress or remain static, even in the absence of further asbestos exposure.
Asbestosis resembles many other diffuse interstitial lung diseases, including other pneumoconiosis. The differential diagnosis includes idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis IPFhypersensitivity pneumonitissarcoidosisand others.
The presence of pleural plaquing may provide supportive evidence of causation by asbestos. Although lung biopsy is usually not necessary, the presence of asbestos bodies in association with pulmonary fibrosis establishes the diagnosis. Figure A shows the location of the lungs, airways, pleura, and diaphragm in the body.
Figure B shows lungs with asbestos-related diseases, including pleural plaque, lung cancer, asbestosis, plaque on the diaphragm, and mesothelioma. Treatment[ edit ] There is no cure available for asbestosis.
Supportive treatment of symptoms includes respiratory physiotherapy to remove secretions from the lungs by postural drainage, chest percussion, and vibration. Nebulized medications may be prescribed in order to loosen secretions or treat underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Immunization against pneumococcal pneumonia and annual influenza vaccination is administered due to increased sensitivity to the diseases. Those with asbestosis are at increased risk for certain cancers.
If the person smokes, quitting the habit reduces further damage. Society and culture[ edit ] Main article: Asbestos and the law The death of English textile worker Nellie Kershaw in from pulmonary asbestosis was the first case to be described in medical literature, and the first published account of disease attributed to occupational asbestos exposure.
However, her former employers Turner Brothers Asbestos denied that asbestosis even existed because the medical condition was not officially recognised at the time.
As a result, they accepted no liability for her injuries and paid no compensation, either to Kershaw during her final illness or to her bereaved family after she had died.
Even so, the findings of the inquest into her death were highly influential insofar as they led to a parliamentary enquiry by the British Parliament. The enquiry formally acknowledged the existence of asbestosis, recognised that it was hazardous to health and concluded that it was irrefutably linked to the prolonged inhalation of asbestos dust.
Having established the existence of asbestosis on a medical and judicial basis, the report resulted in the first Asbestos Industry Regulations being published inwhich came into effect on 1 March Since then, many lawsuits have been filed against asbestos manufacturers and employers, for neglecting to implement safety measures after the link between asbestos, asbestosis and mesothelioma became known some reports seem to place this as early as in modern times.
The liability resulting from the sheer number of lawsuits and people affected has reached billions of dollars. The amounts and method of allocating compensation have been the source of many court cases, and government attempts at resolution of existing and future cases.
From throughanalysis from the United States Government Accountability Office indicates that trusts have paid about 3.Jun 05, · Bronchiectasis is an uncommon disease, most often secondary to an infectious process, that results in the abnormal and permanent distortion of one or more of the conducting bronchi or airways.
In , Reid characterized bronchiectasis as cylindrical, cystic, or varicose in nature. Abstract. Background: Several recent studies have shown a significant reduction in exacerbation rates in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB) patients who received high frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) as an airway clearance therapy.
Other studies have reported significant improvements in pulmonary function and quality of life in NCFB patients using HFCWO therapy. Learn how UpToDate can help you.
For more information on subscription options, click below on the option that best describes you. Today I would like to talk about what has become the bane of existence for gastroenterologists: the dreaded diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal reflux. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a global health problem, and since , the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) has published its strategy document for the diagnosis and management of COPD.
This executive summary presents the main contents of the second 5-year revision of the GOLD document that . Although bronchiectasis (permanent dilatation of the bronchi) is now uncommon, it has the potential to cause devastating illness. Chronic infection has an important role in its pathogenesis, and.