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Scientific and Engineering Practices Asking questions and defining problems Developing and using models Planning and carrying out investigations Analyzing and interpreting data Using mathematics and computational thinking Constructing explanations and designing solutions Engaging in argument from evidence Research paper format for high school students, evaluating, and communicating information Open in a separate window National Research Council Scientific papers based on experimentation typically include five predominant sections: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion.
This structure is a widely accepted approach to writing a research paper, and has specific sections that parallel the scientific method. Following this structure allows the scientist to tell a clear, coherent story in a logical format, essential to effective communication.
While readers may not have time to read the entire research paper, the predictable format allows them to focus on specific sections such as the Abstract, Introduction, and Discussion sections. Therefore, it is critical that information be placed in the appropriate and logical section of the report.
For example, Ethanol Effects on the Developing Zebrafish: Neurobehavior and Skeletal Morphogenesis 8 tells the reader key information about the content of the research paper.
Also, an appropriate and descriptive title captures the attention of the reader. When composing the Title, students should include either the aim or conclusion of the research, the subject, and possibly the independent or dependent variables.
Often, the title is created after the body of the article has been written, so that it accurately reflects the purpose and content of the article. It provides readers with a quick overview that helps them decide whether the article may be interesting to read.
Included in the Abstract are the purpose or primary objectives of the experiment and why they are important, a brief description of the methods and approach used, key findings and the significance of the results, and how this work is different from the work of others.
It is important to note that the Abstract briefly explains the implications of the findings, but does not evaluate the conclusions. Often this section is written last to ensure it accurately reflects the content of the paper. Generally, the optimal length of the Abstract is one paragraph between and words, and does not contain references or abbreviations.
Introduction All new research can be categorized by field e. Many areas already contain a large volume of published research. The role of the Introduction is to place the new research within the context of previous studies in the particular field and area, thereby introducing the audience to the research and motivating the audience to continue reading.
Clearly, this must be done judiciously; usually there is not room to describe every bit of information that is known. Each statement needs one or more references from the scientific literature that supports its validity. Students must be reminded to cite all references to eliminate the risk of plagiarism.
In doing so, the scientist provides the rationale for the research and further develops why this research is important. The final statement in the Introduction should be a clearly worded hypothesis or thesis statement, as well as a brief summary of the findings as they relate to the stated hypothesis.
Keep in mind that the details of the experimental findings are presented in the Results section and are aimed at filling the void in our knowledge base that has been pointed out in the Introduction. Materials and Methods Research utilizes various accepted methods to obtain the results that are to be shared with others in the scientific community.
The quality of the results, therefore, depends completely upon the quality of the methods that are employed and the care with which they are applied.
The reader will refer to the Methods section: It is particularly important to keep in mind item b. Since science deals with the objective properties of the physical and biological world, it is a basic axiom that these properties are independent of the scientist who reported them.
Everyone should be able to measure or observe the same properties within error, if they do the same experiment using the same materials and procedures.
In science, one does the same experiment by exactly repeating the experiment that has been described in the Methods section.
Therefore, someone can only repeat an experiment accurately if all the relevant details of the experimental methods are clearly described. A detailed list of all the materials used in the experiments and, if important, their source should be described. These include biological agents e.
The reader needs to know as much as necessary about each of the materials; however, it is important not to include extraneous information. For example, consider an experiment involving zebrafish.
The type and characteristics of the zebrafish used must be clearly described so another scientist could accurately replicate the experiment, such as 4—6-month-old male and female zebrafish, the type of zebrafish used e.
In addition to describing the physical set-up of the experiment, it may be helpful to include photographs or diagrams in the report to further illustrate the experimental design. A thorough description of each procedure done in the reported experiment, and justification as to why a particular method was chosen to most effectively answer the research question should also be included.Minimalist cover ideas: the student name, school, ID number and other information is printed on white paper, along with a photograph of the accompanying final piece.
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