My bookmarks Making sense of an imposed industrial relations system in Papua New Guinea:
See Article History Alternative Titles: Scholars of industrial relations attempt to explain variations in the conditions of work, the degree and nature of worker participation in decision makingthe role of labour unions and other forms Review of literature on industrial relations worker representation, and the patterns of cooperation and conflict resolution that occur among workers and employers.
These patterns of interaction are then related to the outputs of organizations. These outputs span the interests and goals of the parties to the employment relationship, ranging from employee job satisfaction and economic security to the efficiency of the organization and its impact on the community and society.
Worker, manager, and society Conceptions of the worker 19th- and 20th-century views In classical economicsworkers were regarded as commodities that were subject to the natural laws of supply and demand. Although classical economists readily acknowledged that workers are not motivated by money alone, their abstractions were based only on the economic aspects of reality.
This led them to consider workers as undifferentiated and passive instruments in the production process. Karl Marx in the mids challenged this view of labour. Since under a capitalist system the means of production are not owned and controlled by workers, the workers would be exploited.
Eventually, suggested Marx and his followers, the injustice of this exploitation would lead to a revolutionary overthrow of the capitalist system and its replacement by a socialist state. Later, around the turn of the century, British political economists Sidney and Beatrice Webb joined this debate by arguing that a combination of worker and community forces would gradually achieve a socialist state.
They shared with Marx a belief that workers and employers are separated by class interests and that only by organizing into trade unions would workers amass the bargaining power needed to improve their economic and social conditions.
They did not believe, however, that a revolutionary overthrow of the capitalist system was necessary for social progress.
Instead, worker, employer, and community interests would eventually be harmonized through union representation, collective bargainingand legislative protections. About the same time the Webbs were developing their views in Britain, an American view was taking shape under the work of John R.
Commons and his associates at the University of Wisconsin. Unlike classical economists, these institutional economists believed that the laws of supply and demand could be influenced by the policies, values, structures, and processes used to govern employment relationships.
He also believed, however, that these conflicts are a natural and legitimate part of any employment relationship and would not disappear if capitalism were replaced by socialism.
Because they believed in the value of organized labour and in the need for negotiation and compromise between workers and employers, the institutional economists not only contributed to the development of modern industrial relations—they also provided many of the ideas behind the labour legislation enacted as part of President Franklin D.
The advent of industrial relations in the United States The New Deal changed the face of modern industrial relations. In response to the economic and social crisis of the Great Depressionthe U. Congress and the Roosevelt administration enacted a series of laws granting workers the right to organize into unions and to engage in collective bargaining with employers.
Other New Deal legislation set minimum wages and provided a system of unemployment insurance and social security.
In subsequent years unions organized large numbers of workers in the growing manufacturing, transportation, and communications industries. Labour organization reached a high point at the end of World War IIwith unions representing nearly one-third of all American workers.
By the beginning of the 21st century, however, membership in American unions had undergone significant decline.
The goal of these programs was to draw together the theories and insights of economists, labour and management specialists, and other social scientists to find ways to encourage greater cooperation and improved conflict resolution among workers and employers. Thus, the modern field of industrial relations was born.
Studies of worker behaviour Scientific management While Marx, the Webbs, and Commons focused on the role of labour in the late s and early s, others were developing theories of management.
Taylor developed methods for time-and-motion studies to identify the elements of particular jobs and to determine how elements should be arranged for the greatest efficiency.
He limited his study to the individual worker, however; there was no place in his model for group membership or for the effects of groups upon individual behaviour. Industrial psychology A step further in the recognition of differentiation among workers came with the emergence of industrial psychologistswho are concerned with the measurement of the skills and aptitudes of individuals.
At least in the early stages of these developments, workers were viewed as isolated individuals, and no attention was given to group phenomena. Human relations In the s the emphasis of management researchers shifted from individuals to the work group.
The ideas that this team developed about the social dynamics of groups in the work setting had lasting influence. See history of the organization of work. Behavioral science Behavioral scientists had made their entry into the field by attacking as oversimplified the tendency to view workers as autonomous labourers and to comprehend companies through notions, borrowed from engineering, that stressed organizational structure, technology, and efficiency.
As often happens in arguments between members of competing schools of thought, some behavioral scientists went so far as to view the work organization exclusively as a system of social relations and to downplay the role of economic forces. Behavioral scientists now recognize the importance of economic factors, but they see material rewards as having an effect upon behaviour in combination with social and psychological factors, and they study the pattern in this combination.
Thus, over the years behavioral scientists have deepened the understanding of the ways that interpersonal, structural, and technological forces can affect organizations and industrial relations.
Conceptions of the manager Classical economists made no distinction between the manager and the entrepreneurthe person who brings together land, labour, and capital and puts them to work.Request PDF on ResearchGate | Trade Unions, Collective Bargaining and Macroeconomic Performance: A Review | Coordination through collective bargaining is recognised as an influential determinant of labour market outcomes and macroeconomic performance.
This article provides a systematic review of the empirical literature on the subject. Organizational and industrial psychology, occupational psychology, industrial relations and industrial sociology have all contributed to our understanding of the structure and operation of organizations and the reasons for workplace injuries and causes of occupational illness.
A Critique of the Systems Theory of J. T. Dunlop Jayeoba, Foluso Ilesanmi Department Of Industrial Relations And Personnel Management, Faculty Of Management Sciences, Lagos State University, Ojo Email: [email protected] sundry other factors other than what has been acknowledged in literature.
ILR Review The ILR Review celebrates its 70th anniversary at the forefront of publishing peer-reviewed research on work and employment relations. The Review, published by SAGE Publications, is part of the Cornell University ILR School, which is regarded as the leading academic institution focused on the world of work.
Employee relations is characterised by both conflict and cooperation, Marchington and Wilkinson () described the management of employee relations as being vital to the success or failure of an organisation and it is seen . Prepared!for:! ’ TheCircular’EconomyWorkingGroup’of’the’International’Life’Cycle’Chair’(ILC’Chair),aCIRAIGresearchunit:’’ ArcelorMittal!