They were carved out of Mesopotamia, formerly part of the Ottoman Empire. Iraq itself includes three major groups:
Wednesday, November 12, Published at Turcoman, Armenian, Armenian and Persian are also spoken. The regime that came to power in was dominated by members of the Sunni sect. About a quarter of the Muslims are Kurds, who are mostly Sunni Muslims.
Three quarters of the Muslims are Arabs. The south of Iraq is populated mainly by Shia Muslims, and the centre, west and north of Iraq are mainly Sunni. Twelver Shia Islam is the state religion of Iran.
The Kurds are mainly based on the north and the north-west of the country.
Britain provided the country with a constitution and a bicameral legislature, and put in place King Faisal, the son of Sharif Husain of Mecca. A 25 year Treaty of Alliance was signed between Britain and Iraq.
On 3 October the British mandate ended and Iraq was established as an independent state. Britain retained military bases there and continued to exercise strong political and military influence in the country.
Britain also ensured that a concession for oil exploration and exploitation was given to the Iraq Petroleum Company, a conglomerate of British, French and US interests. Iraq withdrew from the Baghdad Pact in Kassem was assassinated in He was succeeded by his brother, Abd ar-Rahman Muhammed Aref in The regime undertook wide-ranging social and economic reforms to try and increase its popularity.
It nationalised the Iraqi Petroleum Company and was bolstered by rises in oil prices in andfollowing the Arab-Israeli war. In March an agreement was reached between the government and the Kurdish Democratic Party KDPover the establishment of an autonomous Kurdish area.
However, it quickly became clear that the promises made in this 'March Manifesto' would not be fulfilled. Conflict broke out between the Kurds and government's armed forces in the spring of The Kurds were supported by the Shah of Iran, who was concerned about what he saw as Soviet influence over the Iraqi regime.
Jordanian intervention led to the signing of the Algiers Agreement between Iran and Iraq in March Iran closed its border with Iraq which led to the collapse of the Kurdish military force. Kurdish resistance was violently repressed, villages were destroyed and their inhabitants resettled in specially constructed villages surrounded by barbed wire and fortified posts.
The Rise of Saddam Hussain The economic strength of the regime in the late s led to a concurrent rise in its political strength. The Ba'ath party itself lost influence and real power was increasingly concentrated in the hands of Saddam Hussain and his political backers.
The party increasingly became an instrument of the state. In July a decree was passed which made any non-Ba'thist political activity illegal and membership of any other political party punishable by death for all members or former members of the armed forces. President Ahmad Hasan al-Bakr announced his resignation, and the handover of power to Saddam Hussain, on 16 July Huge oil revenues enabled Saddam to spend large sums on welfare and building projects, and living standards improved due to the expanding economy.
Saddam Hussain concentrated on creating his own personality cult; portraits and statues of him were built all over the country. The Republican Guard - the elite presidential security force - was also formed in this period.
Cross-border incidents resulted in Iraq invading Iran and in a full outbreak of war on 22 September Massive losses were experienced by both sides and in a stalemate was reached. It was not accepted by Iran, who launched a further attack on northern Iraq in the spring of The Iraqi air force responded with poison gas, causing 5, civilian deaths in Kurdish northern Iraq.
Iran finally agreed to a cease-fire in July The West often boils down the difficult relations between Iran and Saudi Arabia to sectarian conflicts between Wahhabists and militant Shiites, but the rivalry is much more complex.
The armies of Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Trans-Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and Egypt attacked but were defeated by the Israeli army.
A history of conflict, a timeline from the BBC. Shah, Anup. “The Middle East conflict—a brief background.” Global Issues. 30 Jul. B Analyze the historical background of selected contemporary societies to evaluate relationships between past conflicts and current conditions: History. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Early History: Contemporary Iraq occupies territory that historians regard as the site of the earliest civilizations of the Middle r-bridal.come of its lush vegetation and ample water supply, ancient Mesopotamia (the land between the rivers, so named because the Oxus and Jaxartes rivers, now the Tigris and Euphrates, flowed through it) attracted settlers before B.C.
History of Oil in Iraq Britain took the lion's share of Iraq's oil by gaining military control of the country during World War I. The powerful Iraq Petroleum Company, in which US and French interests held minority positions, kept a monopoly of Iraq's oil sector until nationalization in The fourth era in U.S.
policy toward Iraq featured a short, indecisive war between the two states followed by a "long decade" of consequential complications. The military clash originated in Saddam Hussein's decision, in the aftermath of the Iran-Iraq War, to seek territorial and economic gains at the expense of Kuwait.