EssayCultural Studies Like it Turn in work on time.
The attempt horrified his contemporaries, much as it would modern readers. Given the moral quandaries a humanzee might create, we can be thankful that Ivanov failed: Humans have searched and repeatedly failed to rescue ourselves from this disquieting commonality.
Numerous dividers between humans and beasts have been proposed: First, though, to our fall from grace. We lost our exclusive position in the animal kingdom, not because we overestimated ourselves, but because we underestimated our cousins.
This new grasp of the capabilities of our fellow creatures is as much a return to a pre-Industrial view as it is a scientific discovery. According to the historian Yuval Noah Harari in Sapiensit was only with the burgeoning of Enlightenment humanism that we established our metaphysical difference from and instrumental approach to animals, as well as enshrining the supposed superiority of the human mind.
By contrast, religious perspectives in the Middle Ages rendered us a sort of ensouled animal.
We believed we occupied a glorious perch as a thinking thing. But over time that rarefied category became more and more crowded. The chimp is the opener in a relay race that repeats itself time and again in the study of animal behaviour.
Scientists concoct a new, intelligent task for the chimps, and they do it — before passing down the baton to other primates, who usually also manage it. Then they hand it on to parrots and crows, rats and pigeonsan octopus or two, even ducklings and bees. Over and over again, the newly minted, human-defining behaviour crops up in the same club of reasonably smart, lab-ready species.
We become a bit less unique and a bit more animal with each finding. Some of these proposed watersheds, such as tool-use, are old suggestions, stretching back to how the Victorians grappled with the consequences of Darwinism.
Others, such as imitation or empathyare still denied to non-humans by certain modern psychologists.
Faced with a potential example of culture or empathy in animals, the injunction against anthropomorphism gets trotted out to assert that such labels are inappropriate.
Tool-use is the most famous, and most thoroughly defeated, example. It transpires that chimps use all manner of tools, from sticks to extract termites from their mounds to stones as a hammer and anvil to smash open nuts.
The many delightful antics of New Caledonian crows have received particular attention in recent years. Among other things, they can use multiple tools in sequence when the reward is far away but the nearest tool is too short and the larger tools are out of reach.
They use the short tool to reach the medium one, then that one to reach the long one, and finally the long tool to reach the reward — all without trial and error. Yet in captivity, a cockatoo named Figaro, raised by researchers at the Veterinary University of Vienna, invented a method of using a long splinter of wood to reach treats placed outside his enclosure — and proceeded to teach the behaviour to his flock-mates.
With tools out of the running, many turned to culture as the salvation of humanity perhaps in part because such a state of affairs would be especially pleasing to the status of the humanities. It took longer, but animals eventually caught up.
Those chimpanzees who use stones as hammer and anvil? Turns out they hand on this ability from generation to generation. Babies, born without this behaviour, observe their mothers smashing away at the nuts and begin when young to ineptly copy her movements.Aeon is a registered charity committed to the spread of knowledge and a cosmopolitan worldview.
Our mission is to create a sanctuary online for serious thinking. Guide to writing an essay. What is an essay? Essays at university need to respond to the question by developing an argument which is based on evidence and critical reasoning. Comparing and Contrasting What this handout is about This handout will help you first to determine whether a particular assignment is asking for comparison/contrast and then to generate a list of similarities and differences, decide which similarities and differences to focus on, and organize your paper so that it will be clear and effective.
Compare & contrast essays How things are similar or different Compare and contrast is a common form of academic writing, either as an essay type on its own, or as part of a larger essay which includes one or more paragraphs which compare or contrast. This webpage is for Dr. Wheeler's literature students, and it offers introductory survey information concerning the literature of classical China, classical Rome, classical Greece, the Bible as Literature, medieval literature, Renaissance literature, and genre studies.
Throughout your academic career, you'll be asked to write papers in which you compare and contrast two things: two texts, two theories, two historical figures, two scientific processes, and so on.
How to Write a Comparative Analysis.